This law states that a wire conductor that creates movement through a magnetic field creates an electric current, and that the strength of the current is equal to the rate of change through the magnetic field. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity. The DC power for the electromagnet is from the main generator output itself. The exhaust pipe terminates outdoors and leads away from doors, windows and other openings to the house or building. A wind turbine is a machine that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electricity.The blades of a wind turbine turn between 13 and 20 revolutions per minute, depending on their technology, at a constant or variable velocity, where the velocity of the rotor varies in relation to the velocity of the wind in order to reach a greater efficiency. (6)  Finally, the electricity produced can be extracted from the generator. (3)  Attached to the turbine shaft is a coil of copper wire that rotates at the same speed as the turbine shaft and is often referred to as an armature. Explore IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY! A Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) captures exhaust heat from the gas turbine that would otherwise escape through the exhaust stack. (e) Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter – This separates water and foreign matter from the liquid fuel to protect other components of the generator from corrosion and contamination. (c) Overflow connection from fuel tank to the drain pipe – This is required so that any overflow during refilling of the tank does not cause spillage of the liquid on the generator set. I try to approach a Gas Turbo Generator (GTG) to better feel the subject. It reduces wear and tear, and ensures durability of the engine. Expedited Shipping - US & Canada, Get $$$ for your used power generation equipment. The components work together to cause relative movement between the magnetic and electric fields, which in turn generates electricity. The manufacturer of the engine should be consulted to obtain full engine operation specifications and maintenance schedules. When you add a load to a generator, its output voltage dips a little. A generator is simply a device that moves a magnet near a wire to create a steady flow of electrons. This is why very large generators and small power plants often have large cooling towers next to them. For all other common applications, both residential and industrial, a standard radiator and fan is mounted on the generator and works as the primary cooling system. For commercial applications, it may be necessary to erect and install an external fuel tank. Tidal power can work in different ways depending on the type of system in use. (b) Rotor / Armature – This is the moving component that produces a rotating magnetic field in any one of the following three ways: (i) By induction – These are known as brushless alternators and are usually used in large   generators. Find out how much Solar Power will cost to setup and how much you can save! The turbine consists of the turbine wheel (1) and the turbine housing (2). These need to be freestanding and should not be supported by the engine of the generator. In the following sections, we will look at how a generator functions, the main components of a generator, and how a generator operates as a secondary source of electrical power in residential and industrial applications. A number of high power thyristors rectify the AC current to produce a DC current which feeds to the rotor through slip rings. Each different force will eventually create a rotating force within the turbine generator. Click the following link for further details regarding fuel tanks for generators. The following are the factors that you need to keep in mind while assessing the alternator of a generator: (a) Metal versus Plastic Housing – An all-metal design ensures durability of the alternator. (1) Voltage Regulator: Conversion of AC Voltage to DC Current – The voltage regulator takes up a small portion of the generator’s output of AC voltage and converts it into DC current. You should check the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours of generator operation. (3) Rotating Rectifiers: Conversion of AC Current to DC Current – These rectify the AC current generated by the exciter windings and convert it to DC current. Voltage Regulator Get more expert information and stay on top of green energy news. (ii) By permanent magnets – This is common in small alternator units. Once the generator reaches full operating capacity, the voltage regulator attains a state of equilibrium and produces just enough DC current to maintain the generator’s output at full operating level. • Simpler operation mechanism (b) Engine gauges – Different gauges indicate important parameters such as oil pressure, temperature of coolant, battery voltage, engine rotation speed, and duration of operation. If the float voltage is very high, it will shorten the life of the battery. Located in Brighton, Colorado. It is the job of the turbine housing to guide the exhaust gas (3) into the turbine wheel. (2) Exciter Windings: Conversion of DC Current to AC Current – The exciter windings now function similar to the primary stator windings and generate a small AC current. It work on simple principle the energy from fluid flow turns the three propeller like blade around the rotor which is connected to the main shaft that spin the generator which produces electricity. (a) Electric start and shut-down – Auto start control panels automatically start your generator during a power outage, monitor the generator while in operation, and automatically shut down the unit when no longer required. Since the generator comprises moving parts in its engine, it requires lubrication to ensure durability and smooth operations for a long period of time. With a gasoline-powered generator, an internal combustion engine drives a rotating shaft that turns the armature. (a) Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine – The supply line directs fuel from the tank to the engine and the return line directs fuel from the engine to the tank. Generators do not produce electricity on their own, they must first collect mechanical energy from an outside source. There are less common varieties with two blades, or with concrete or steel lattice towers. The force of the fluid on the blades spins/rotates the rotor shaft of a generator. Two of the most common applications of Gas Turbines in modern industries are Turbo Generators and Turbo Compressors. Battery Charger Faraday discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical conductor, such as a wire that contains electric charges, in a magnetic field. A home generator uses an internal combustion engine to drive an alternator. This video explains how a gas turbine, the heart of the power plant, produces an electric current that delivers power to our people. How the Gas Generator Produces Electricity Air-fuel mixture ignites. Different manufacturers have varied features to offer in the control panels of their units. This cycle continues till the generator begins to produce output voltage equivalent to its full operating capacity. All generators, portable or stationary, have customized housings that provide a structural base support. The exciter windings are connected to units known as rotating rectifiers. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain undercharged. • User-friendly in operations (b) Ventilation pipe for fuel tank – The fuel tank has a ventilation pipe to prevent the build-up of pressure or vacuum during refilling and drainage of the tank. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils, producing alternating current (AC) by moving electrons. The method of retrieving the electrical energy depends on how it will be used. The amount of power produced will depend on … Plastic housings get deformed with time and cause the moving parts of the alternator to be exposed. You might think that, of all this work, Tesla would have held his inventions in electrical engineering -- those that described a complete system of generators, transformers, transmission lines, motor and lighting -- dearest to his heart. In the case of small generator units, the fuel tank is a part of the generator’s skid base or is mounted on top of the generator frame. The DC output voltage of the battery charger is set at 2.33 Volts per cell, which is the precise float voltage for lead acid batteries. The rotor in a turbine generator could be attached to a set of wind turbine blades, a set of reaction or impulse steam turbine blades, hydro-turbine blades, or a gas engine. The engine can use either, gas, diesel or natural gas (propane) as a source of fuel. WHAT IS A WIND TURBINE? It is essential to have a cooling and ventilation system to withdraw heat produced in the process. Hydrogen removes heat from the generator and transfers it through a heat exchanger into a secondary cooling circuit that contains de-mineralized water as a coolant. Raw/fresh water is sometimes  used as a coolant for generators, but these are mostly limited to specific situations like small generators in city applications or very large units over 2250 kW and above. But in 1913, Tesla received a patent for what he described as his most important invention. This rotational energy caused by the high pressured steam turbine is used to generate electricity from an attached generator. The energy for rotation of the rotor is from a rotating turbine or an Internal Combustion engine. (d) Other controls – Phase selector switch, frequency switch, and engine control switch (manual mode, auto mode) among others. Generators - As the turbine blades turn, so do a series of magnets inside the generator. The Stirling engine (or Stirling's air engine as it was known at the time) was invented and patented in 1816. How a generator works is easy to understand if you can understand each step below. In simple terms, a steam turbine works by using a heat source (gas, coal, nuclear, solar) to heat water to extremely high temperatures until it is converted into steam. This point can not be emphasized enough as carbon monoxide poisoning remains one of the most common causes for death in post hurricane affected areas because people tend to not even think about it until it’s too late. (b) Overhead Valve (OHV) Engines versus non-OHV Engines – OHV engines differ from other engines in that the intake and exhaust valves of the engine are located in the head of the engine’s cylinder as opposed to being mounted on the engine block. Hydrogen is sometimes used as a coolant for the stator windings of large generator units since it is more efficient at absorbing heat than other coolants. It is important to understand that a generator does not actually ‘create’ electrical energy. The answer to that is a definite, “It depends.” No doubt, … Note: in this particular case, we get electric energy produced from two different directions (as one coil is spinning up, the other is rotating downward) so the electrical output comes as an alternating current. More easily seen from this view, the armature rotates within the generator, with each end moving opposite the other. The turbine inside the generator rotates from an source of mechanical energy, which causes the copper coil to rotate within a magnetic field, which produces an electric current. 2.1K views View 3 Upvoters As stated before, the mechanical energy needed to make the generator work can come from several different forces. The battery charger keeps the generator battery charged by supplying it with a precise ‘float’ voltage. OHV engines have several advantages over other engines such as: • Compact design The steart function of a generator is battery-operated. The fast-spinning turbine drives a generator that converts a portion of the spinning energy into electricity. • Durability Just good stuff. (iii) By using an exciter – An exciter is a small source of direct current (DC) that energizes the rotor through an assembly of conducting slip rings and brushes. The frame also allows for the generated to be earthed for safety. In modern generators the exciters are static. The alternator, also known as the ‘genhead’, is the part of the generator that produces the electrical output from the mechanical input supplied by the engine. All such installations are subject to the approval of the City Planning Division. The main job of the rotor is to absorb the mechanical energy outside the generator, and use it to create rotational motion. When wind flows across the blade, the air pressure on one side of the blade decreases. The cycle continues till the generator output ramps up to its original full operating capacity. Hence, it is essential to install an adequate exhaust system to dispose of the exhaust gases. (4) Rotor / Armature: Conversion of DC Current to AC Voltage – The rotor / armature now induces a larger AC voltage across the windings of the stator, which the generator now produces as a larger output AC voltage. By providing your email you consent to receiving occasional promotional emails & newsletters. In the figure below we see a graphical representation of an an alternating current, where the electrical charge travels back and forth repeatedly between and positive and negative charge: The information above is a brief overview of how a generator works. The following article provides further details regarding the generator control panel. The modern-day generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831-32. Instead, it uses the mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges present in the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit. (c) Cast Iron Sleeve (CIS) in Engine Cylinder – The CIS is a lining in the cylinder of the engine. This produces the alternating current (AC) output of the generator. The energy can then be transferred to a generator where electricity is produced. (c) Brushless Design – An alternator that does not use brushes requires less maintenance and also produces cleaner power. In renewable types of energy, wind, and water, for example, natural forces spin a turbine. Remote Monitoring Of Used Industrial Generators, Shipping Industrial Generators to Customers, Outside Field Service Sales Representative – Industrial Generators. (b) Ball Bearings versus Needle Bearings – Ball bearings are preferred and last longer. Exhaust pipes are usually made of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel. These generators can be … This prompts the voltage regulator into action and the above cycle begins. The rotor generates a moving magnetic field around the stator, which induces a voltage difference between the windings of the stator. (f) Fuel Injector – This atomizes the liquid fuel and sprays the required amount of fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine. But how do these generators work? The size of the alternator will vary and can be anything from around 10KW up to 40KW or more. So the generator will produce the AC power according to load demand, then it will be converted to DC and then to AC. Therefore most of nuclear power plants operates a single-shaft turbine-generator that consists of one multi-stage HP turbine and three parallel multi-stage LP turbines, a main generator and an exciter.HP Turbine is usually double-flow reaction turbine with about 10 stages with shrouded blades and produces about 30-40% of the gross power output of the power plant unit. (5)  As the turbine rotates the armature through the magnetic field, an electrical current is created within the copper coil of the armature. And this doesn’t have to be a strong wind, either: the blades of most turbines will start turning at a wind speed of 3-5 meters per second, which is a gentle breeze. The picture below shows the same generator from a different point of view, as if you were looking lengthwise, down through the circular top of the turbine cylinder. (b) Exhaust System Generators are useful appliances that supply electrical power during a power outage and prevent discontinuity of daily activities or disruption of business operations. The prime mover can be a steam turbine, a gas turbine, a wind turbine, or a hydro turbine. Turbine is a rotary mechanical device which extracts energy from fluid flow converts it into useful work. It contains a set of electrical conductors wound in coils over an iron core. All rights reserved. You must ensure that the exhaust system of your generator is not connected to that of any other equipment. Control Panel An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy obtained from an external source into electrical energy as the output. When you need quiet, clean energy, an inverter generator is the way to go. Cooling & Exhaust System A steam turbine generator works by heating water to extremely high temperatures until it is converted into steam, then the steam energy is used to rotate the blades of a turbine to create mechanical or rotational energy. The battery charger has an isolated DC voltage output that does interfere with the normal functioning of the generator. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain undercharged. Common sources used to supply a generator with mechanical energy are: The fuels used to supply these forces are: The generator pictured above is a small and cylindrical turbine generator with an outer casing made of steel. Smaller engines usually operate on gasoline while larger engines run on diesel, liquid propane, propane gas, or natural gas. The st e art function of a generator is battery-operated. Generators are available in different electrical and physical configurations for use in different applications. So, the faster the copper coil rotates, the more electric current will be created. In a turbine generator, a moving fluid—water, steam, combustion gases, or air—pushes a series of blades mounted on a rotor shaft. As the output of the generator increases, the voltage regulator produces less DC current. AC current is generated by an electrical AC generator operating on the electromagnetic induction (EMI) principle. Wind turbines generate electricity using generators. Certain engines can also operate on a dual feed of both diesel and gas in a bi-fuel operation mode. Hence, the electrical generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Transformer - The transformer inside the powerhouse takes the AC and converts it to higher-voltage current. The voltage regulator then feeds this DC current to a set of secondary windings in the stator, known as exciter windings. Be the first to hear about the latest green energy news, technology and offers. However, OHV-engines are also more expensive than other engines. This is the user interface of the generator and contains provisions for electrical outlets and controls. The generator should be placed in an open and ventilated area that has adequate supply of fresh air. How do wind turbines work? A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Alternating current (AC) has a sinusoidal shape and changes its direction and amplitude alternately. The National Electric Code (NEC) mandates that a minimum space of 3 feet should be allowed on all sides of the generator to ensure free flow of cooling air. How Expensive Is It To Run The Generator? This flow of electric charges constitutes the output electric current supplied by the generator. In this article and the video below, you are going to learn what a Gas Turbine is and how it works in a very easy-to-follow format. The disturbance of the downstream wind current is why regular turbines need to be installed far from each other. The main components of an electric generator can be broadly classified as follows: The engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to the generator. Constant measurement and monitoring of these parameters enables built-in shut down of the generator when any of these cross their respective threshold levels. The current is created due to a law of electromagnetism called Faraday’s Law of Induction, discovered in the 1800’s. This mechanism can be understood by considering the generator to be analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but does not actually ‘create’ the water flowing through it. (4)  On either side of the armature, on the casing of the generator, we have two polar field magnets that create a magnetic field inside the space within the generator. This movement creates a voltage difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in turn causes the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current. Not every device will work with a hand-powered generator -- only ones that draw the kind of current and voltage put out by the generator will work. Continuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated up. As one end rotates upward through the magnetic field, the opposite side will be rotating downward, and eventually in a complete circle that is repeated many times. Heat recovery system captures exhaust. Its basic parts are a stator and a rotor. Inverter generators serve a number of applications for our portable power customers including, RV power, camping, entertainment sound sets, sporting event vendors, healthcare and elderly care backup operations, mobile restaurants, mobile service providers, sensitive construction environments, and … A generator consists of a stationary magnetic field (stator) in which a rotating electromagnet (armature) spins to produce electrical current.