After Moctezuma was killed in the attempt to negotiate with his own people, the Spaniards determined to escape by fighting their way across one of the causeways that led from the city across the lake and to the mainland. [30], At the Papaloapan River, Alvarado ordered his ship upriver, leaving the rest of the small fleet behind to wait for him at the river mouth. Although suffering many injuries inflicted by defending K'iche' archers, the Spanish and their allies stormed the town and set up camp in the marketplace. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. In turn Cortés gave her in guard to Pedro de Alvarado,[48]:178 who quickly and unremarkably became her lover. [26] He placed his nephew Juan de Grijalva in overall command;[27] Pedro de Alvarado captained one of the ships. [6] He was handsome,[7] and presented an affable appearance, but was volatile and quick to anger. At the age of ten he volunteered with his brother to teach adults in their rural village to read and write. Pedro de Alvarado led the conquest of the maya in the year 1523.He was the chief officer of Cortez. This marriage gave Alvarado extra leverage at court and was far more useful to his long term interests; Alvarado thereafter maintained a friendship with Francisco de los Cobos that allowed him access to the king's favour. The Maya civilization was, unlike the Aztecs, made up of a number of different polities that were subjugated in a piecemeal fashion by Spanish conquistadores. 117 ). Alvarado remained governor of Guatemala until his death. The Spanish army under Alvarado soon seized K'iche' kingdom and fought fierce battles with the Kaqchikel kings, eventually forcing them to surrender to the Spanish. [55], Alvarado was received in peace in Soconusco, and the inhabitants swore allegiance to the Spanish Crown. The K'iche' warriors, seeing their lords taken prisoner, attacked the Spaniards' indigenous allies and managed to kill one of the Spanish soldiers. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 763. [1] He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. These efforts established many towns such as San José Acatempa in 1525 and Esquipulas in 1560. [63], On 14 April 1524, soon after the defeat of the K'iche', the Spanish were invited into Iximche and were well received by the lords Belehe Qat and Cahi Imox. In June, 1536, Alvarado engaged the indigenous resistance led by Cicumba in the lower Ulua river valley, and won. Alvarado also had two other children with other women. Fowler 1985, p. 41. With Luisa de Tlaxcala Pedro de Alvarado had three children: By other women, in more casual relationships, he had two other children: Pedro de Alvarado, as imagined by painter Tomás Povedano in 1906. [87], This was a serious setback and Alvarado camped his army in Nancintla for eight days, during which time he sent two expeditions against the attacking army. Also aboard were Francisco de Montejo and Bernal Díaz del Castillo, veterans of the Grijalva expedition. "Conquistador." [58] On 8 February 1524 Alvarado's army fought a battle at Xetulul, called Zapotitlán by his Mexican allies (modern San Francisco Zapotitlán). [14] His father was Gómez de Alvarado,[15] and his mother was Leonor de Contreras, Gómez's second wife. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. Pedro de Alvarado went to Hispaniola in 1510. The Tlaxcalteca attacked the Spanish force numerous times but they were unable to rout the Spanish forces. He was altogether destitute of that moderation, which, in the delicate position he occupied, was a quality of more worth than all the rest.